what did cortés and quetzalcoatl have in common

He may also have a hat-band holding sacrificial implements, a flower, a fan of black and yellow feathers and ear-rings of jade circles or spiral shells (epcololli). Inca Mythology: The Realms of Hanan Pacha, Kay Pacha & Uku Pacha, Inca Cloth: Weaving Grades of Ancient Peruvian Textiles, Almazan, Marco A. Although there is … Despite the various roles and deeds ascribed to Quetzalcoatl in Aztec theology, he was not the most important god worshipped in Tenochtitlan, the capital of the Aztec empire. Cortés landed at Cozumel in the Yucatan peninsula in the early spring of 1519. When Cortés learned of this, he left … Mexico: Facts & Figures; 2003, p16-21, 6p. Less than 30 years after Christopher Columbus landed on the Western Hemisphere and claimed it for Spain, another Spanish explorer, Hernán Cortés sailed across the Atlantic towards the New World in search for wealth and status. info)) is a deity in Mesoamerican culture and literature whose name comes from the Nahuatl language and means "feathered serpent" or "Quetzal-feathered Serpent". The claim that Aztecs mistook Cortés for a supernatural being arose in the 1530s, and became associated with Quetzalcoatl in particular in the 1540s, when people in New Spain were looking back and trying to explain what had happened to them. However, in codexes (plural?) Cult worship may have involved the ingestion of hallucinogenic mushrooms (psilocybes), considered sacred. The problem that some ethnocentric scholars seem to have with the previously accepted belief that Montezuma II, ruler of the Aztecs, put up little resistance to the Spaniards because he thought their arrival was the fulfillment of the Quetzalcoatl prophecy has to do with the fact that history is written by the victors. Whether by shear luck or by providence, the time of Cortés’ arrival coincided with the prophesied return of the Aztec god, Quetzalcoatl. After a slapstick-style chase scene, Xavier winds up as the Sun God and commits "sacricide" (sacrificial suicide), ending the skit. The Mexican Earth. The god also often wears the wind jewel (Ehecailacozcatl) which is a cross section of a conch whorl worn as a pectoral. Along with this religious mission and the tantalizing lure of undiscovered riches, Hernán Cortés set off to accomplish both. Montezuma may have been confused by all these events. ", "Method and Skepticism (and Quetzalcoatl...)", "Quetzalcoatl, the Maya maize god and Jesus Christ", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Quetzalcoatl&oldid=991665620, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Articles having same image on Wikidata and Wikipedia, Articles containing Classical Nahuatl-language text, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from August 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2013, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2012, Articles with incomplete citations from April 2020, Articles with Spanish-language sources (es), Articles with Nahuatl languages-collective sources (nah), Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 1 December 2020, at 05:56. What was the capital city of the Aztecs? The scope of this paper is more modest than to engage the "return of Quetzalcoatl" debate. Latter-day Saint author Brant Gardner, after investigating the link between Quetzalcoatl and Jesus, concluded that the association amounts to nothing more than folklore. The two arduous years he spent on this disastrous expedition damaged his health and his position. Thousands of sacrifices in a single day was not uncommon. Quetzalcoatl is the "White bearded God" or the "Serpent God" from the legend of Quetzalcoatl of the ancient Aztecs. The Tlaxcalteca, along with other city-states across the Plain of Puebla, then supplied the auxiliary and logistical support for the conquests of Guatemala and West Mexico while Mixtec and Zapotec caciques (Colonial indigenous rulers) gained monopolies in the overland transport of Manila galleon trade through Mexico, and formed highly lucrative relationships with the Dominican order in the new Spanish imperial world economic system that explains so much of the enduring legacy of indigenous life-ways that characterize southern Mexico and explain the popularity of the Quetzalcoatl legends that continued through the colonial period to the present day. The Nahuatl nouns compounded into the proper name "Quetzalcoatl" are: Nicholson 2001, Carrasco 1982, Gillespie 1989, Florescano 2002, Lafaye 1987, Townsend 2003, Martínez 1980, Phelan 1970, (in English, Spanish, and Nahuatl languages), Proposed Book of Mormon geographical setting, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Fate/Grand Order - Absolute Demonic Front: Babylonia, The Secrets of the Immortal Nicholas Flamel, "Evidence of Mushroom Worship in Mesoamerica", "New Taxonomical and Ethnomycological Observations on, "Readings in Classical Nahuatl: The Death of Quetzalcoatl", "The Complete New York City Horror Movie Marathon! In the episode "Damnesia You," Xavier winds up in the Aztec world and is immediately (and unsuccessfully) sacrificed for insulting the Sun God, and during the sacrifice the Aztecs humorously fail to pronounce his name. Moctezuma did not think Cortés was a god (Quetzalcoatl) Compa_Mighty Mere Mortal posted 09-15-06 07:54 PM CT (US) This is my translation of part of the chapter called A myth: Moctezuma believed Cortés was Quetzalcoatl from Pablo Moctezuma Barragán's book, titled Moctezuma and The Anahuac (Noriega Editores, Mexico 2004). Unlike the newer gods of the Aztec pantheon, Quetzalcoatl shared his namesake with the feathered serpent deities of the K’iche’ Maya and the Yucatec Maya. When Hernán Cortés learned about the wealthy Aztecs during his exploration trip, he set out to find them. Quetzalcoatl (Classical Nahuatl: Quetzalcōhuātl pronounced [ke.ʦal.ˈkoː.waːtɬ]) is an Aztec sky and creator god.The name is a combination of quetzalli, a brightly colored Mesoamerican bird, and coatl, meaning serpent. The Aztecs -- or the Mexica as they are more properly known -- ruled an area that stretched from the Gulf of Mexico to the Pacific Ocean, populated by millions. Quetzalcoatl’s fame is also linked to a persistent story about Hernan Cortés, the Spanish conquistador credited with conquering the Aztec Empire. For example, some historians have suggested that Moctezuma II , the Aztec leader at the time of the Spanish conquest, may have believed that Hernán Cortés was Quetzalcoatl. “Aztec Empire”. He was the guy who was suppose to return from the East to reclaim his power, but the Indians mistook Cortes for him instead". [34] This speech, which has been widely referred to, has been a factor in the widespread belief that Moctezuma was addressing Cortés as the returning god Quetzalcoatl. What did Hernan Cortes and Francisco have in common? This view has been questioned by ethno-historians who argue that the Quetzalcoatl-Cortés connection is not found in any document that was created independently of post-Conquest Spanish influence, and that there is little proof of a pre-Hispanic belief in Quetzalcoatl's return. Consider the following: 1. A feathered serpent deity has been worshiped by many different ethno-political groups in Mesoamerican history. During the 16th century, Quetzalcoatl – whose name in the Nahuatl language means “feathered serpent” or “plumed serpent”, was one of the principle Aztec deities. Cortés later claimed in his correspondence to King Charles that Montezuma believed Cortés to be the Aztec god Quetzalcoatl, or at the very least, his messenger. info)) is a deity in Mesoamerican culture and literature whose name comes from the Nahuatl language and means "feathered serpent" or "Quetzal-feathered Serpent". Quetzalcoatl was named after a god who was simultaneously a creator and a millennialist figure in Aztec mythology and for whom Cortez was mistaken. There's a nugget of truth … At that time he seems to have been conceived as a vegetation god. In fact, thousands of natives aided Cortés’ conquest of Mexico. This view has been questioned by ethno-historians who argue that the Quetzalcoatl-Cortés connection is not found in any document that was created independently of post-Conquest Spanish influence, and that there is little proof of a pre-Hispanic belief in Quetzalcoatl's return. Although probably not exactly a depiction of the same feathered serpent deity worshipped in classic and post-classic periods, it shows the continuity of symbolism of feathered snakes in Mesoamerica from the formative period and on, for example in comparison to the Maya Vision Serpent shown below. It is also possible that Montezuma thought Cortés was another Mexica god, perhaps the trickster god Texcatlipoca. According to one of the legends, Quetzalcoatl, who was among the gods of creation, was forced into exile by Tezcatlipoca; another principal Aztec god. Quetzalcoatl, the Feathered Serpent, one of the major deities of the ancient Mexican pantheon. This depiction is believed to have been made around 900 BC. 1 He Came From Across The Sea 2 He Was Fair-skinned And Bearded 3 He Told Them He Was 4 He Arrived In Military Attire. The earliest iconographic depiction of the deity is believed to be found on Stela 19 at the Olmec site of La Venta, depicting a serpent rising up behind a person probably engaged in a shamanic ritual. Most Mesoamerican beliefs included cycles of suns. [9] Furthermore, early Spanish sources written by clerics tend to identify the god-ruler Quetzalcoatl of these narratives with either Hernán Cortés or Thomas the Apostle—identifications which have also become sources of a diversity of opinions about the nature of Quetzalcoatl.[10]. Most documents expounding this theory are of entirely Spanish origin, su… Legend had it that Quetzalcoatl was white-skinned, bearded and he was opposed to human sacrifice. The story of the life of the Mexican divinity, Quetzalcoatl, closely resembles that of the Savior; so closely, indeed, that we can come to no other conclusion than that Quetzalcoatl and Christ are the same being. There's a nugget of truth in this relating to events described in the primary sources, but popular perception of what happened has been heavily distorted in a way that bares little resemblance to the truth. He was known as the inventor of books and the calendar, the giver of maize (corn) to mankind, and sometimes as a symbol of death and resurrection. It is also suggested that he was a son of Xochiquetzal and Mixcoatl. Quetzalcoatl Fought With His Brother . The treasure hunt would ultimately end in the Conquest of the Aztec Empire. On the basis of the Teotihuacan iconographical depictions of the feathered serpent, archaeologist Karl Taube has argued that the feathered serpent was a symbol of fertility and internal political structures contrasting with the War Serpent symbolizing the outwards military expansion of the Teotihuacan empire. Like many Mesoamerican gods, he had multiple incarnations. [21], The exact significance and attributes of Quetzalcoatl varied somewhat between civilizations and through history. They maintained a major pilgrimage and commercial center at Cholula, Puebla which the Spaniards compared to both Rome and Mecca because the cult of the god united its constituents through a field of common social, political, and religious values without dominating them militarily. We've all heard the name before. Statue of Quetzalcoatl. For the giant pterosaur, see. The figure of Ce Acatl would become inseparable from the image of the god. [41][42] The deity has been featured as a character in the manga and anime series Yu-Gi-Oh! This one was to be headed by 34 year old Cortés. Later on, Xavier and the Aztecs summon Quetzalcoatl in his mortal form and wind up angering him after cutting him open. Quetzalcoatl’s name, which means “Feathered Serpent,” was derived from the Nahuatl words for the quetzal bird and “coatl,” meaning serpent. The earliest depictions of the feathered serpent deity were fully zoomorphic, depicting the serpent as an actual snake, but already among the Classic Maya, the deity began acquiring human features. Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History, 2005, Vol. Over the South presides the Blue Tezcatlipoca, Huitzilopochtli, the god of war. In Aztec culture, depictions of Quetzalcoatl were fully anthropomorphic. Among the Aztecs, the name Quetzalcoatl was also a priestly title, as the two most important priests of the Aztec Templo Mayor were called "Quetzalcoatl Tlamacazqui". He also had anthropomorphic forms, for example in his aspects as Ehecatl the wind god. The story of the Aztec treating Cortes as a god on account of his beard and blue eyes makes Europeans in general and Cortes in particular look pretty good. Cortes did not speak Nahuatl, so he culd not speak directly to Motecuhzoma/Montezuma. This theme is also seen in the idea of human sacrifice, which, according to myth, Quetzalcoatl does not condone. Quetzalcoatl was considered important in the pantheon of Aztec gods. This story, detailed in Spanish … Show transcribed image text. The legend of Quetzalcoatl is spoofed in the Adult Swim CGI series Xavier: Renegade Angel. Life in Ancient Mesoamerica. Quetzalcoatl sailed away into the Atlantic on a raft made of snakes with a promise to return on his year, the First Year of the Reed (this occurs once every 52 years). Hernan Cortez and the Quetzalcoatl Prophecy: How the Spanish Conquest of Mexico... Inca Population: How Many Incas Were There? [22] A fourth story narrates that Quetzalcoatl was born from Coatlicue, who already had four hundred children who formed the stars of the Milky Way. [citation needed] Additionally, at least one major cache of offerings includes knives and idols adorned with the symbols of more than one god, some of which were adorned with wind jewels. Cholula is known to have remained the most important center of worship to Quetzalcoatl, the Aztec/Nahua version of the feathered serpent deity, in the post-classic period. The name of the K’iche’ Maya deity Q’uq’umatz meant “Quetzal Serpent” while the Yucatec Maya god Kukulkantranslated to the less specific “Feathered Serpent.” [12] In his form as the morning star, Venus, he is also depicted as a harpy eagle. [40], Quetzalcoatl was fictionalized in the 1982 film Q as a monster that terrorizes New York City. Other parties have also promulgated the idea that the Mesoamericans believed the conquistadors, and in particular Cortés, to be awaited gods: most notably the historians of the Franciscan order such as Fray Gerónimo de … Center was Cholula where the feathered serpent is first known documented in Teotihuacan in the conquest of Mexico Hernán. Huitzilopochtli – for the sun god - Huitzilopochtli – for the Spanish conquistador credited conquering. Feats, was set to return to Earth, what did cortés and quetzalcoatl have in common being also often wears the wind jewel ( Ehecailacozcatl which... The first century BC or first century AD Facts & Figures ;,! Not wealthy, parents about other people law at the time where the was... Feathered snake occur as early as the morning star ( see Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli ). [ 28.... He followed, becoming the morning star, Venus was in turn also symbolically connected with warfare [... 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