the effects of vegetarian and vegan diets on gut microbiota

Erny D, Hrabě de Angelis AL, Prinz M. Communicating systems in the body: how microbiota and microglia cooperate. NIH PLoS Biol. The interaction of polyphenols and gut microbiota is bidirectional (90, 91). These findings indicate that a vegan diet, associated with lower body weight, might benefit microbial diversity and protect against inflammation. Defecation. and Bifidobacterium spp. (2010) 5:e9085. 2018 Nov;52(5):702-705. doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2018.07.023. Benefits of polyphenols on gut microbiota and implications in human health. Nutrients. The obese participants also displayed a reduction in the Bacteriodetes:Firmicutes ratio and an increase in Proteobacteria, a pro-inflammatory phylum. Species of this genus are specialized in degrading complex carbohydrates, such as cellulose and resistant starch, found in plant based foods (51). Menaquinone, folate, cobalamin, and riboflavin (ie: vitamins K, B9, and B2) are produced by gut microbes (25). This is determined through bacterial specificity in which specific gene clusters within the bacterial genome dictate the saccharolytic enzymes that the bacteria can produce and, therefore, whether they can metabolize the prebiotic substrate (63). This review will focus on effects of different diets and nutrient contents, particularly plant-based diets, on the gut microbiota composition and production of microbial metabolites affecting the host health. (2016) 74:444–54. Front Microbiol. Smits LP, Kootte RS, Levin E, Prodan A, Fuentes S, Zoetendal EG, et al. doi: 10.1038/nature06884, 4. Vegetarian. The human gut microbiota is considered a well-known complex ecosystem composed of distinct microbial populations, playing a significant role in most aspects of human health and wellness. Front Nutr. Lin A, Bik EM, Costello EK, Dethlefsen L, Haque R, Relman DA, et al. Non-digestible carbohydrates most consistently increase lactic acid bacteria, Ruminococcus, E. rectale, and Roseburia, and reduce Clostridium and Enterococcus species (54). Gut Microbes. A majority of the studies have noted that protein consumption correlates positively with microbial diversity (54). The Effects of Vegetarian and Vegan Diets on Gut Microbiota [Tomova et al., 2019] ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/ar... Review. Horáčková Š, Plocková M, Demnerová K. Importance of microbial defence systems to bile salts and mechanisms of serum cholesterol reduction. Previous studies have shown effects of a VD or vegan diet on enrichment of SCFA‐producing bacteria (eg, Roseburia, Ruminococcus, and Blautia) and subsequent increase in fecal SCFA levels, which may contribute to improved metabolic health. Ishii C, Nakanishi Y, Murakami S, Nozu R, Ueno M, Hioki K, et al. These examples reflect the difficulties in broadly linking certain phyla to particular diets. 20, No. The difference in gut microbiota composition between individuals following vegan or vegetarian diets and those following omnivorous diets is well documented. (2016) 32:66–72. 2012 Sep 28;108(6):953-7. doi: 10.1017/S0007114511006362. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. Impact Factor 3.365 | CiteScore 4.3More on impact ›, Vegetarian Dietary Patterns in the Prevention and Treatment of Disease Nature. doi: 10.1016/j.tifs.2018.03.009, 75. We observed differences between the groups in macronutrient and micronutrient consumption, the composition of the gut microbiota, and plasma and urinary metabolomes. A plant-based diet is generally naturally low in fat, which favors beneficial Bifidobacteria in human gut microbiota. Li Y, Innocentin S, Withers DR, Roberts NA, Gallagher AR, Grigorieva EF, et al. One study compared the bacterial composition between Indian (n = 11) and Chinese (n = 5) adults (39). Short chain fatty acids and gut microbiota differ between patients with Parkinson's disease and age-matched controls. Hentges DJ, Maier BR, Burton GC, Flynn MA, Tsutakawa RK. De Filippis F, Pellegrini N, Laghi L, Gobbetti M, Ercolini D. Unusual sub-genus associations of faecal Prevotella and Bacteroides with specific dietary patterns. Constipation. Fiber-utilizing capacity varies in Prevotella- versus Bacteroides-dominated gut microbiota. doi: 10.1016/j.numecd.2012.02.007, 73. Gut. Additionally, vegans and vegetarians have a significantly greater richness (alpha diversity) compared to omnivores, specifically counts of certain Bacteroidetes-related operational taxonomic units (OTUs) (35). Wu GD, Compher C, Chen EZ, Smith SA, Shah RD, Bittinger K, et al. Gut microbiome profiling of a rural and urban South African cohort reveals biomarkers of a population in lifestyle transition. This review looked at the current evidence surrounding plant-based diets and the gut microbiome. 7, P. 36. share. Fiber also increases short-chain fatty acids linked to improved immunity … Changes in microbiota … Vegan fecal microbiota transplantation in metabolic syndrome patients resulted in significant changes in intestinal microbiota composition but failed to show changes in TMAO production. In vitro fermentation of selected prebiotics and their effects on the composition and activity of the adult gut microbiota. 2020 Sep 28;60(4):1-10. doi: 10.1007/s12088-020-00908-0. On the other hand, participants from the Adventist Health Study-2 (60,903) following a vegan diet displayed the lowest BMI values when compared with those following a vegetarian or omnivorous diet (32). (2016) 14:e1002533. Depending on the bacteria and location along the intestinal tract, different bioactive molecules can be produced from different prebiotics and nutrients (70, 73). Vegetarian diets and gut microbiota: important shifts in markers of metabolism and cardiovascular disease. Small molecules from the human microbiota. . Canfora EE, Meex RCR, Venema K, Blaak EE. Similarities and differences in gut microbiome composition correlate with dietary patterns of Indian and Chinese adults. Polyphenols, also abundant in plant foods, increase Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus, which provide anti-pathogenic and anti-inflammatory effects and cardiovascular protection. Oduaran OH, Tamburini FB, Sahibdeen V, Brewster R, Gómez-Olivé FX, Kahn K, Norris SA, Tollman SM, Twine R, Wade AN, Wagner RG, Lombard Z, Bhatt AS, Hazelhurst S. BMC Microbiol. Nonetheless, due to the complexity and inter-individual differences, further research is required to fully characterize the interactions between diet, the microbiome, and health outcomes. Likewise, plant-derived proteins have been associated with lower mortality than animal-derived proteins (54). Bull MJ, Plummer NT. . Adv Exp Med Biol. (2009) 136:65–80. -, Arumugam M, Raes J, Pelletier E, Le Paslier D, Yamada T, Mende DR, et al. Is a vegan or a vegetarian diet associated with the microbiota composition in the gut? One study compared US children eating a Western diet to Bangladeshi children consuming a plant-based diet of rice, bread, and lentils. Rational identification of diet-derived postbiotics for improving intestinal microbiota function. The qualitative and quantitative proportions of urolithins and equol produced correlate positively with the effects of phytoestrogens (88). Pathogens. doi: 10.1038/nrcardio.2016.183, 17. Stool. Gérard P. Metabolism of cholesterol and bile acids by the gut microbiota. These microbes degrade dietary fibers, producing butyrate, which acts as an anti-inflammatory compound. Immunology. The pathway analysis of the predicted metagenomes showed an enrichment of folate biosynthesis in vegans compared with omnivores (77). National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. While these microbes degrade complex carbohydrates, they also break down the resistant starches found in refined grain products (52). Nat Rev Cardiol. However, both digestible and non-digestible carbohydrates may influence the gut microbiota. Impact of a 3-months vegetarian diet on the gut microbiota and immune repertoire. Nutrients. ), but here we would like to describe a few examples of well-known diet-dependent metabolites, such as SCFA and others. 10.1038/nature06884 Nuts, particularly walnuts, have been shown to improve the gut microbiota by increasing Ruminococcaceae and Bifidobacteria, and decreasing Clostridium sp. Lower nutrient bioavailability, found in larger food particles, intact plant cell walls, and food without thermal treatment, means that more nutrients reach lower in the gastrointestinal system, thus enriching nutrient delivery to the gut microbiota (57). doi: 10.1038/s41574-019-0156-z, 82. (2018) 19:E4079. Integr Med Clin J. However, Ruminococcus has also been linked to low dietary fiber consumption in college students. For instance, individuals consuming a high animal protein diet, from beef which is also high in fat, displayed lower abundances of bacteria, such as Roseburia, Eubacterium rectale, and Ruminococcus bromii, that metabolize dietary plant polysaccharides (51). While Bacteroides can be pro-inflammatory and their concentration is associated with long term consumption of animal products, a study analyzing 11 vegetarians, 20 vegans, and 29 omnivores (49) found a discrepancy in this generalization. doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.103.9.1238, 35. 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Prete R, Fuchs S, Zhao B operational taxonomic units compared to omnivores, Mancin M, T... Feed the human body associated with cardiovascular and neurological disorders, Devi RS Levin... Garcia-Varela R, Lazzi C, JI C, et al gene load in vegan, vegetarian and diets! These products can be diet-independent ( such as SCFA and others profile ( ). Are positively correlated with plant based diets that while inter-individual variability exists, dietary patterns of Indian and adults... Be made, some Enterococcus, Lactobacillus agilis, certain Bacteroides, and produce that..., 67 ) an anti-inflammatory compound: 29 March 2019 ; accepted: 29 March 2019 ;:! Thus, an increase in microbial diversity in a Japanese population subjects had adhered to ability... Microbes and their effects from those due to a Mediterranean diet rich in fruit, and! 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